The combined effect of cryosurgery and anticancer drugs (cryochemotherapy) was studied in an experimental B16 melanoma/BDF1 tumor system. Vascular volume and vascular permeability after cryosurgery of normal skin and the tumor were measured by using 51Cr-labeled red blood cells and 125I-labeled serum albumin. The vascular volume and vascular permeability of both the normal vessels and the tumor vessels greatly increased immediately after cryosurgery, and their vascular volume decreased to less than the normal level within a few hours. However, the tumor vessels showed less dilatation and increase in permeability than the vessels of normal tissue. There was a difference in functional characteristics in response to cryoinjury between the normal vessels and the tumor vessels. The anticancer drugs, peplomycin and adriamycin, were administered intraperitoneally in combination with cryosurgery. When peplomycin was administered 5 min, 1 hr, and 3 hr after cryosurgery, the drug concentration in the frozen tumor was higher than that in the untreated tumor. But when administered 1 hr before cryosurgery, peplomycin was not trapped in the tumor. Trapping of adriamycin was not observed after the same treatment. In cryochemotherapy, it is necessary to administer the appropriate drug at the appropriate time. However, the trapping of the anticancer drug results in a high concentration and lasts for a long time, so that cryochemotherapy is expected to be a new mode of cancer therapy, particularly as a multidisciplinary treatment for cancer.