An antinuclear antibody specific for nuclear membrane (ANMA) was observed by the immunofluorescence method in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). ANMA was present in 18 of 63 PBC sera (28.5) and in 1 of 431 control sera (0.2%). Its reaction appeared as a thin fluorescent ring confined to the nuclear envelope and was more evident when the sera were highly diluted and the fluorescence, due to frequently associated antimitochondrial antibody, faded. The ANMA fluorescent pattern was confirmed by indirect immunoperoxidase staining. ANMA was seen on both tissue cryostat sections and HEp-2 cells. It was a poorly or non-complement-fixing IgG, specific for an antigen resistant to DNase I, RNase, and trypsin. The significance of its presence in PBC in unknown at present. Identification of its antigen with one of the centromeric antigens is suggested.