The severe challenges of the skyrocketing healthcare expenditure and the fast aging population highlight the needs for innovative solutions supporting more accurate, affordable, flexible, and personalized medical diagnosis and treatment. Recent advances of mobile technologies have made mobile devices a promising tool to manage patients' own health status through services like telemedicine. However, the inherent limitations of mobile devices make them less effective in computation- or data-intensive tasks such as medical monitoring. In this study, we propose a new hybrid mobile-cloud computational solution to enable more effective personalized medical monitoring. To demonstrate the efficacy and efficiency of the proposed approach, we present a case study of mobile-cloud based electrocardiograph monitoring and analysis and develop a mobile-cloud prototype. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can significantly enhance the conventional mobile-based medical monitoring in terms of diagnostic accuracy, execution efficiency, and energy efficiency, and holds the potential in addressing future large-scale data analysis in personalized healthcare.