Prospective meta-analysis of trials comparing fixed dose combination based care with usual care in individuals at high cardiovascular risk: the SPACE Collaboration

Int J Cardiol. 2013 Dec 5;170(1):30-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.10.007. Epub 2013 Oct 12.


Background: An international collaboration of investigators will assess the benefits and risks of fixed dose combination (FDC) based care compared with usual care in populations at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several trials are being conducted, as the effectiveness and economic impact of a FDC-based strategy may vary substantially between countries, given the varying influence of the health-care system within which the intervention is delivered.

Methods: Individual patient data (IPD) will be provided by participating trials for combined IPD meta-analysis.

Results: Primary outcomes will include self-reported current use of antiplatelet, statin, and combination (≥ 2) blood pressure lowering therapies at 12 months, and change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and LDL cholesterol from baseline to 12 months. Non-inferiority margins of 3 mm Hg for SBP and 0.3 mmol/L for LDL cholesterol have been pre-specified. Secondary outcomes will include change in cholesterol fractions, diastolic blood pressure and creatinine from baseline to 12 months, quality of life, new onset diabetes mellitus, mortality (cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular and all cause) and a composite outcome of cardiovascular events (including all coronary heart disease events, heart failure events leading to death or requiring hospital admission, cerebrovascular events and peripheral arterial events).

Conclusion: The SPACE group of trials will assess, in a variety of healthcare settings, whether a FDC strategy for delivery of preventive medication has the potential to significantly improve prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients at high risk.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Meta-analysis; Polypill; Prospective.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage
  • Aspirin / administration & dosage
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cooperative Behavior*
  • Drug Combinations
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Prospective Studies
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / methods
  • Risk Factors


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Drug Combinations
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Aspirin