Objective: We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the diagnostic outcomes of CT-guided aspiration and core biopsy of 305 pulmonary nodules measuring less than 1 cm.
Materials and methods: We determined the diagnostic yield of using CT-guided aspiration and core biopsy to analyze 305 lesions in 290 patients. Diagnostic performance was evaluated according to the biopsy method, including aspiration alone, core biopsy alone, and combination use, and the consistency of the nodule, including solid, partly solid ground-glass opacity (GGO), and pure GGO. Final diagnoses were established in 268 of the 305 lesions (87.9%). Nondiagnostic biopsy results were obtained for 27 of the 268 lesions (10.1%).
Results: The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignancy were 93.1% (148 of 159 lesions), 98.8% (81/82), 99.3% (148/149), and 88.0% (81/92), respectively; diagnostic accuracy was 95.0% (229/241). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that aspiration alone was a significant independent risk factor associated with diagnostic failure (odds ratio, 3.199; p = 0.001).
Conclusion: The use of CT-guided aspiration and core biopsy resulted in a high diagnostic yield for pulmonary nodules smaller than 1 cm. The use of the aspiration method alone was an independent risk factor associated with diagnostic failure.