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, 85 (6), 837-44

Altered Antigenic Profiling and Infectivity of Porphyromonas Gingivalis in Smokers and Non-Smokers With Periodontitis

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Altered Antigenic Profiling and Infectivity of Porphyromonas Gingivalis in Smokers and Non-Smokers With Periodontitis

Iris Zeller et al. J Periodontol.

Abstract

Background: Cigarette smokers are more susceptible to periodontal diseases and are more likely to be infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis than non-smokers. Furthermore, smoking is known to alter the expression of P. gingivalis surface components and compromise immunoglobulin (Ig)G generation. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the overall IgG response to P. gingivalis is suppressed in smokers in vivo and whether previously established in vitro tobacco-induced phenotypic P. gingivalis changes would be reflected in vivo.

Methods: The authors examined the humoral response to several P. gingivalis strains as well as specific tobacco-regulated outer membrane proteins (FimA and RagB) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in biochemically validated (salivary cotinine) smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP: n = 13) or aggressive periodontitis (AgP: n = 20). The local and systemic presence of P. gingivalis DNA was also monitored by polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Smoking was associated with decreased total IgG responses against clinical (10512, 5607, and 10208C; all P <0.05) but not laboratory (ATCC 33277, W83) P. gingivalis strains. Smoking did not influence IgG produced against specific cell-surface proteins, although a non-significant pattern toward increased total FimA-specific IgG in patients with CP, but not AgP, was observed. Seropositive smokers were more likely to be infected orally and systemically with P. gingivalis (P <0.001), as determined by 16S RNA analysis.

Conclusion: Smoking alters the humoral response against P. gingivalis and may increase P. gingivalis infectivity, strengthening the evidence that mechanisms of periodontal disease progression in smokers may differ from those of non-smokers with the same disease classification.

Keywords: Antigen-antibody reactions; Porphyromonas gingivalis; immunoglobulin; periodontitis; smoking; vaccines.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Salivary cotinine concentrations (mean ± S.D.) in validated current smokers and current non-smokers with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. Non-detectable cotinine concentrations were entered as 0.0 ng ml-1. *** p < 0.001.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Total IgG titers (mean ± S.D.) against laboratory and clinical strains and P. gingivalis strains in smokers and current non-smokers with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Total IgG titers (mean ± S.D.) against laboratory and clinical strains and P. gingivalis strains in smokers and current non-smokers with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Total IgG titers (mean ± S.D.) against laboratory and clinical strains and P. gingivalis strains in smokers and current non-smokers with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Total IgG titers (mean ± S.D.) against P. gingivalis surface proteins in smokers and current non-smokers with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Total IgG titers (mean ± S.D.) against P. gingivalis surface proteins in smokers and current non-smokers with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis.

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