Refractory wounds in diabetic patients present a significant clinical problem. Sonic hedgehog (SHH), a morphogenic protein central to wound repair, is deficient in diabetes. Regulation of SHH in wound healing is poorly understood. We hypothesize that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), through its receptor CD36, contributes to the SHH signaling defect in bone marrow-derived angiogenic cells (BMACs) in type 1 diabetic mice. Isolated BMACs from TSP-1-knockout mice demonstrated improved tube formation, migration, and adhesion in parallel with active SHH signaling. BMACs from STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice showed significantly impaired Matrigel tube formation (n = 5; P < 0.05 vs. control), which was rescued by TSP-1 depletion (n = 5; P < 0.05 STZ-TSP-1(-/-) vs. STZ-WT) or exogenous SHH (20 mg/l, 24 h, n = 4; P < 0.05 vs. STZ-control). The expression of CD36 was elevated in BMACs from STZ mice (n = 4; P < 0.05). SHH signaling was significantly higher in BMACs from TSP-1(-/-) mice and TSP-1 receptor CD36-knockout mice (n = 6; P < 0.05 vs. WT) but not CD47-knockout mice (n = 3; P > 0.05 vs. WT). The impairment of recombinant human TSP-1 (2.2 nM, 24 h) on BMAC Matrigel tube formation was delayed significantly by CD36 deletion (n = 5; P < 0.05). CD36(-/-) BMACs demonstrated better tube formation under both normal and diabetic conditions with active SHH signaling (n = 4; P < 0.05 vs. WT BMACs). In conclusion, The TSP-1/CD36 pathway contributes to the SHH signaling defect, resulting in BMAC dysfunction in type 1 diabetic mice.
Keywords: Sonic hedgehog; bone marrow-derived angiogenic cells; thrombospondin-1; type 1 diabetes.