In most rodents and some other mammals, the removal of one lung results in compensatory growth associated with dramatic angiogenesis and complete restoration of lung capacity. One pivotal mechanism in neoalveolarization is neovascularization, because without angiogenesis new alveoli can not be formed. The aim of this study is to image and analyze three-dimensionally the different patterns of neovascularization seen following pneumonectomy in mice on a sub-micron-scale. C57/BL6 mice underwent a left-sided pneumonectomy. Lungs were harvested at various timepoints after pneumonectomy. Volume analysis by microCT revealed a striking increase of 143 percent in the cardiac lobe 14 days after pneumonectomy. Analysis of microvascular corrosion casting demonstrated spatially heterogenous vascular densitities which were in line with the perivascular and subpleural compensatory growth pattern observed in anti-PCNA-stained lung sections. Within these regions an expansion of the vascular plexus with increased pillar formations and sprouting angiogenesis, originating both from pre-existing bronchial and pulmonary vessels was observed. Also, type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages were seen to participate actively in alveolar neo-angiogenesis after pneumonectomy. 3D-visualizations obtained by high-resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy showed the appearance of double-layered vessels and bud-like alveolar baskets as have already been described in normal lung development. Scanning electron microscopy data of microvascular architecture also revealed a replication of perialveolar vessel networks through septum formation as already seen in developmental alveolarization. In addition, the appearance of pillar formations and duplications on alveolar entrance ring vessels in mature alveoli are indicative of vascular remodeling. These findings indicate that sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis are pivotal mechanisms in adult lung alveolarization after pneumonectomy. Various forms of developmental neoalveolarization may also be considered to contribute in compensatory lung regeneration.