Background: Elevated NF-κB activity has been previously demonstrated in prostate cancer cell lines as hormone-independent or metastatic characteristics develop. We look at the effects of piperlongumine (PL), a biologically active alkaloid/amide present in piper longum plant, on the NF-κB pathway in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.
Methods: NF-κB activity was evaluated using Luciferase reporter assays and Western blot analysis of p50 and p65 nuclear translocation. IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9 levels were assessed using ELISA. Cellular adhesion and invasiveness properties of prostate cancer cells treated with PL were also assessed.
Results: NF-κB DNA-binding activity was directly down-regulated with increasing concentrations of PL, along with decreased nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 subunits. Expression of IL-6, IL-8, MMP-9, and ICAM-1 was attenuated, and a decrease of cell-to-matrix adhesion and invasiveness properties of prostate cancer cells were observed.
Conclusions: PL-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity decreases aggressive growth characteristics of prostate cancer cells in vitro.
Keywords: IL-6; IL-8; MMP-9; NF-κB; ROS; adhesion; apoptosis; cytokines; piperlongumine; prostate cancer.
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.