Background: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been implicated in regulating cardiovascular pathophysiology in experimental models. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the levels of H2S in health and cardiovascular disease. In this study we examine the levels of H2S in patients with cardiovascular disease as well as bioavailability of nitric oxide and inflammatory indicators.
Methods and results: Patients over the age of 40 undergoing coronary or peripheral angiography were enrolled in the study. Ankle brachial index (ABI) measurement, measurement of plasma-free H2S and total nitric oxide (NO), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels were performed. Patients with either coronary artery disease alone (n = 66), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) alone (n = 13), or any vascular disease (n = 140) had higher plasma-free H2S levels compared to patients without vascular disease (n = 53). Plasma-free H2S did not distinguish between disease in different vascular beds; however, total NO levels were significantly reduced in PAD patients and the ratio of plasma free H2S to NO was significantly greater in patients with PAD. Lastly, plasma IL-6, ICAM-1, and TSP-1 levels did not correlate with H2S or NO bioavailability in either vascular disease condition.
Conclusions: Findings reported in this study reveal that plasma-free H2S levels are significantly elevated in vascular disease and identify a novel inverse relationship with NO bioavailability in patients with peripheral arterial disease.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01407172.
Keywords: coronary artery disease; hydrogen sulfide; nitric oxide; peripheral arterial disease.