New, normative, English-sample data for the Short Form Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4)

J Health Psychol. 2013 Dec;18(12):1617-28. doi: 10.1177/1359105313508346. Epub 2013 Oct 22.


This article provides population norms for the Short Form Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) and investigates the relationship between PSS-4 scores and sociodemographic variables. The PSS-4 was administered to an English sample (n = 1568) and was found to have acceptable psychometric properties. Sociodemographic variables explained 19.5% of variance in PSS-4 scores, and mean PSS-4 scores were significantly different from the mean scores reported in Cohen and Williamson's original study. Greater levels of perceived health status, greater levels of social support, being male and being older were predictive of lower PSS-4 scores. Norm values for interpreting PSS-4 scores are presented.

Keywords: normative values; perceived stress scale; psychometric.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • England
  • Female
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Recall*
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychometrics
  • Regression Analysis
  • Self Report / standards*
  • Social Support
  • Stress, Psychological*
  • Young Adult