Identification of a suitable and selective inhibitor towards aldehyde oxidase catalyzed reactions

Xenobiotica. 2014 Mar;44(3):197-204. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2013.819594. Epub 2013 Oct 24.


1. Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a liver cytosolic molybdoflavoprotein enzyme whose importance in drug metabolism is gaining in the recent. The objective of this work is to find a potent and selective inhibitor for AO activity using phthalazine oxidation as a marker reaction. 2. Among organic solvents tested, it was identified that methanol was not a suitable choice for AO activity even at concentrations less than 0.2% v/v. Acetonitrile and DMSO did not show any effect till 0.5% v/v but thereafter activites tend to decrease. 3. For selectivity, 23 compounds were selected and evaluated for their effects on AO and nine CYP450 enzymes. Among the tested compounds chlorpromazine, estradiol, hydralazine, quetiapine and raloxifene were selected based on their potency of inhibition towards AO activity. 4. Raloxifene was found to be a non-specific inhibitor of all major tested CYP450 enzymes and was excluded as a selective inhibitor for AO. Quetiapine also showed a degree of inhibition towards the major CYP450 tested. Hydralazine used as a specific inhibitor during the past for AO activity demonstrated a stimulation of AO activity at high and low concentrations respectively and the inhibition noted to be time dependent while inhibiting other enzymes like monoamine oxidase. 5. Estradiol showed no inhibition towards the tested CYP450 enzymes and thus proved to be a selective and specific inhibitor for AO activity with an uncompetitive mode of inhibition.

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Oxidase / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Aldehyde Oxidase / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Dibenzothiazepines / pharmacology
  • Estradiol / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Inactivation, Metabolic / physiology*
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Liver / physiology
  • Microsomes, Liver / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Phthalazines / metabolism
  • Quetiapine Fumarate
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride / pharmacology
  • Solvents / pharmacology*
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Biomarkers
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Dibenzothiazepines
  • Phthalazines
  • Solvents
  • Quetiapine Fumarate
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride
  • Estradiol
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • phthalazine
  • Aldehyde Oxidase