Effects of aluminum and extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on oxidative stress and memory in brain of mice

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013 Dec;156(1-3):243-52. doi: 10.1007/s12011-013-9847-9. Epub 2013 Oct 26.


This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aluminum and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) on oxidative stress and memory of SPF Kunming mice. Sixty male SPF Kunming mice were divided randomly into four groups: control group, ELF-MF group (2 mT, 4 h/day), load aluminum group (200 mg aluminum/kg, 0.1 ml/10 g), and ELF-MF + aluminum group (2 mT, 4 h/day, 200 mg aluminum/kg). After 8 weeks of treatment, the mice of three experiment groups (ELF-MF group, load aluminum group, and ELF-MF + aluminum group) exhibited firstly the learning memory impairment, appearing that the escaping latency to the platform was prolonged and percentage in the platform quadrant was reduced in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Secondly are the pathologic abnormalities including neuronal cell loss and overexpression of phosphorylated tau protein in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. On the other hand, the markers of oxidative stress were determined in mice brain and serum. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity and increase in the levels of malondialdehyde in the ELF-MF group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), load aluminum group (P < 0.01), and ELF-MF + aluminum group (P < 0.01). However, the treatment with ELF-MF + aluminum induced no more damage than ELF-MF and aluminum did, respectively. In conclusion, both aluminum and ELF-MF could impact on learning memory and pro-oxidative function in Kunming mice. However, there was no evidence of any association between ELF-MF exposure with aluminum loading.

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
  • Electromagnetic Radiation*
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Maze Learning / radiation effects
  • Memory / drug effects*
  • Memory / radiation effects*
  • Mice
  • Oxidative Stress* / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress* / radiation effects


  • Aluminum