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Review
. 2013 Dec;25(12):663-9.
doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxt050. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Confounding Roles for Type I Interferons During Bacterial and Viral Pathogenesis

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Free PMC article
Review

Confounding Roles for Type I Interferons During Bacterial and Viral Pathogenesis

Javier Antonio Carrero. Int Immunol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Although type I interferons (IFN-I) were initially defined as potent antiviral agents, they can also cause decreased host resistance to some bacterial and viral infections. The many antiviral functions of the IFN-I include direct suppression of viral replication and activation of the immune response against viruses. In addition to their antiviral effects, IFN-I are also protective against several extracellular bacterial infections, in part, by promoting the induction of TNF-α and nitric oxide. In contrast, there is a negative effect of IFN-I on host resistance during chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and acute infections with intracellular bacteria. In the case of LCMV, chronic IFN-I signaling induces adaptive immune system suppression. Blockade of IFN-I signaling removes the suppression and allows CD4 T-cell- and IFN-γ-mediated resolution of the infection. During acute intracellular bacterial infection, IFN-I suppress innate immunity by at least two defined mechanisms. During Francisella infection, IFN-I prevent IL-17 upregulation on γδ T cells and neutrophil recruitment. Following Listeria infection, IFN-I promote the cell death of macrophages and lymphocytes, which leads to innate immune suppression. These divergent findings for the role of IFN-I on pathogen control emphasize the complexity of the interferons system and force more mechanistic evaluation of its role in pathogenesis. This review evaluates IFN-I during infection with an emphasis on work carried out IFN-I-receptor-deficient mice.

Keywords: LCMV; Listeria monocytogenes; cytokine; infection; mouse.

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