Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most common remediation for knee pain from osteoarthritis (OA) and is performed 650,000 annually in the U.S. A tourniquet is commonly used during TKA which causes ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) to the lower limb but the effects of I/R on muscle are not fully understood. Previous reports suggest upregulation of cell-stress and catabolism and downregulation of markers of cap-dependent translation during and after TKA. I/R has also been shown to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR). We hypothesized that the UPR would be activated in response to ER stress during TKA. We obtained muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis at baseline, before TKA; at maximal ischemia, prior to tourniquet deflation; and during reperfusion in the operating room. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and AKT decreased during ischemia (-28%, p < .05; -20%, p < .05 respectively) along with an increase in eIF2α phosphorylation (64%, p < .05) suggesting decreased translation initiation. Cleaved ATF6 protein increased in ischemia (39%, p = .056) but returned to baseline during reperfusion. CASP3 activation increased during reperfusion compared to baseline (23%, p < .05). XBP1 splicing assays revealed an increase in spliced transcript during ischemia (31%, p < .05) which diminished during reperfusion. These results suggest that in response to I/R during TKA all three branches of the ER stress response are activated.
Keywords: Clinical; ER stress; Ischemia Reperfusion; Muscle; Unfolded Protein Response.