Development of a nutritionally balanced pizza as a functional meal designed to meet published dietary guidelines

Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov;17(11):2577-86. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002814. Epub 2013 Oct 28.


Objective: To develop a worked example of product reformulation of a very popular 'junk food' to meet nutritional guidelines for public health in a ready meal.

Design: Indicative survey of popular Margherita pizzas, followed by product reformulation, applying dietary guidelines to generate a single-item pizza meal containing 30 % daily amounts of energy and all nutrients. An iterative process was used; first to optimize nutrient balance by adjusting the proportions of bread base, tomato-based sauce and mozzarella topping, then adding ingredients to provide specific nutrients and consumer tasting.

Setting: Urban areas of contrasting socio-economic status.

Subjects: Untrained unselected adults (n 49) and children (n 63), assessing pizza at tasting stations.

Results: Most commercial pizzas provide insufficient information to assess all nutrients and traditional Margherita pizza ingredients provide insufficient Fe, Zn, iodine, and vitamins C and B12. Energy content of the portions currently sold as standard range from 837 to 2351 kJ (200 to 562 kcal), and most exceed 30 % Guideline Daily Amounts for saturated fat and Na when a 2510 kJ (600 kcal) notional meal is considered. The 'nutritionally balanced pizza' provides the required energy for a single-item meal (2510 kJ/600 kcal), with all nutrients within recommended ranges: Na (473 mg, ∼45 % below recommended level), saturated fat (<11 % energy) and dietary fibre (13·7 g). Most adults (77 %) and children (81 %) rated it 'as good as' or 'better than' their usual choice.

Conclusions: Nutritional guidelines to reduce chronic diseases can be applied to reformulate 'junk food' ready meals, to improve public health through a health-by-stealth approach without requiring change in eating habits.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Energy Intake
  • Fast Foods / standards
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Meals*
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage
  • Micronutrients / standards
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Policy*
  • Nutritive Value*
  • Public Health
  • Scotland
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Micronutrients