Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 9 (6), 537-56

Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder


Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Andrea J Rapkin et al. Womens Health (Lond).


Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is comprised of a cluster of affective, behavioral and somatic symptoms recurring monthly during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The disorder affects 3-8% of menstruating women and represents the more severe and disabling end of the spectrum of premenstrual disorders, which includes premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual aggravation of underlying affective disorder. Rigorous and specific diagnostic criteria for PMDD were specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (1994) and reaffirmed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V (2013) and, consequently, there has been a marked increase in well-designed, placebo-controlled studies evaluating treatment modalities. Although the exact pathogenesis of PMDD is still elusive, treatment of PMDD and severe premenstrual syndrome has centered on neuromodulation via serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, and ovulation suppression utilizing various contraceptive and hormonal preparations. Unlike the approach to the treatment of depression, serotonergic antidepressants need not be given daily, but can be effective when used cyclically, only in the luteal phase or even limited to the duration of the monthly symptoms. Less, well-substantiated alternative treatments, such as calcium supplementation, agnus castus (chasteberry), Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and cognitive/behavioral/relaxation therapies, may be useful adjuncts in the treatment of PMDD. This review provides an overview of current information on the treatment of PMDD.

Similar articles

  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Burden of Illness and Treatment Update
    T Pearlstein et al. J Psychiatry Neurosci 33 (4), 291-301. PMID 18592027.
    Five percent of menstruating women have severe premenstrual symptoms and impairment of functioning defined as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Clinically significa …
  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
    T Lanza di Scalea et al. Med Clin North Am 103 (4), 613-628. PMID 31078196. - Review
    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) comprises emotional and physical symptoms and functional impairment that lie on the severe end of the continuum of premenstrual sym …
  • Pathophysiology of Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
    AJ Rapkin et al. Menopause Int 18 (2), 52-9. PMID 22611222. - Review
    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder are triggered by hormonal events ensuing after ovulation. The symptoms can begin in the early, mid or late …
  • [Psychiatric and Psychological Aspects of Premenstrual Syndrome]
    F Limosin et al. Encephale 27 (6), 501-8. PMID 11865558. - Review
    Numerous, but heterogeneous studies have been performed about premenstrual syndrome, with finally a lack of credibility and interest among practitioners. More recently wi …
  • Premenstrual Syndrome: A Mini Review
    A Ryu et al. Maturitas 82 (4), 436-40. PMID 26351143. - Review
    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by recurrent, moderate-to-severe affective, physical, and behavioral symptoms that develop during the luteal menstrual cycle …
See all similar articles

Cited by 6 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

MeSH terms

LinkOut - more resources