Seed weight (SW) is a component of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., seed yield, as well as an important trait for food-type soybeans. Two soybean populations, 120 F4-derived lines of 'Young'xPI416937 (Pop1) and 111 F2-derived lines of PI97100x'Coker 237' (Pop2), were mapped with RFLP makers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conditioning SW across environments and populations. The genetic map of Pop1 consisted of 155 loci covering 973 cM, whereas Pop2 involved 153 loci and covered 1600 cM of map distance. For Pop1, the phenotypic data were collected from Plains, GA., Windblow, N.C., and Plymouth, N.C., in 1994. For Pop2, data were collected from Athens, GA., in 1994 and 1995, and Blackville, S.C., in 1995. Based on single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), seven and nine independent loci were associated with SW in Pop1 and Pop2, respectively. Together the loci explained 73% of the variability in SW in Pop1 and 74% in Pop2. Transgressive segregation occurred among the progeny in both populations. The marker loci associated with SW were highly consistent across environments and years. Two QTLs on linkage group (LG) F and K were located at similar genomic regions in both populations. The high consistency of QTLs across environments indicates that effective marker-assisted selection is feasible for soybean SW.