Despite the provision of oxygen, antibiotics and treatment guidelines, the case fatality rate for hypoxaemic pneumonia is still high in many hospitals in developing countries. Methods of delivering continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are now available which are simple to use, safe and relatively inexpensive. This paper describes two methods which may be appropriate where resources are limited: (i) bubble-CPAP using oxygen concentrators with an air-oxygen mix function and low resistance nasal oxygen prongs, and (ii) high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy. More research is needed on the implementation, cost and effectiveness of CPAP in the management of pneumonia and in neonatal care in developing countries.
Keywords: Acute respiratory infection,; Bronchiolitis,; CPAP,; District hospitals; Neonatal care,; Oxygen therapy,; Pneumonia,; Respiratory distress,.