The myxobacterial agent archazolid inhibits the vacuolar proton pump V-ATPase. V-ATPases are ubiquitously expressed ATP-dependent proton pumps, which are known to regulate the pH in endomembrane systems and thus play a crucial role in endo- and exocytotic processes of the cell. As cancer cells depend on a highly active secretion of proteolytic proteins in order to invade tissue and form metastases, inhibition of V-ATPase is proposed to affect the secretion profile of cancer cells and thus potentially abrogate their metastatic properties. Archazolid is a novel V-ATPase inhibitor. Here, we show that the secretion pattern of archazolid treated cancer cells includes various prometastatic lysosomal proteins like cathepsin A, B, C, D and Z. In particular, archazolid induced the secretion of the proforms of cathepsin B and D. Archazolid treatment abrogates the cathepsin B maturation process leading to reduced intracellular mature cathepsin B protein abundance and finally decreased cathepsin B activity, by inhibiting mannose-6-phoshate receptor-dependent trafficking. Importantly, in vivo reduced cathepsin B protein as well as a decreased proteolytic cathepsin B activity was detected in tumor tissue of archazolid-treated mice. Our results show that inhibition of V-ATPase by archazolid reduces the activity of prometastatic proteases like cathepsin B in vitro and in vivo.
Keywords: V-ATPase; archazolid; cancer; cathepsin B; metastasis.
© 2013 UICC.