Brassica cultivars are classified as biennial or annual based on their requirement for a period of cold treatment (vernalization) to induce flowering. Genes controlling the vernalization requirement were identified in a Brassica rapa F2 population derived from a cross between an annual and a biennial oilseed cultivar by using an RFLP linkage map and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of flowering time in F3 lines. Two genomic regions were strongly associated with variation for flowering time of unvernalized plants and alleles from the biennial parent in these regions delayed flowering. These QTLs had no significant effect on flowering time after plants were vernalized for 6 weeks, suggesting that they control flowering time through the requirement for vernalization. The two B. rapa linkage groups containing these QTLs had RFLP loci in common with two B. napus linkage groups that were shown previously to contain QTLs for flowering time. An RFLP locus detected by the cold-induced gene COR6.6 cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana mapped very near to one of the B. rapa QTLs for flowering time.