Objective: The authors conducted a genetic linkage study of families that have both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and language-impaired probands to find common communication impairment loci. The hypothesis was that these families have a high genetic loading for impairments in language ability, thus influencing the language and communication deficits of the family members with ASD. Comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of the families also enabled linkage analysis of quantitative measures, including normal, subclinical, and disordered variation in all family members for the three general autism symptom domains: social, communication, and compulsive behaviors.
Method: The primary linkage analysis coded persons with either ASD or specific language impairment as "affected." The secondary linkage analysis consisted of quantitative metrics of autism-associated behaviors capturing normal to clinically severe variation, measured in all family members.
Results: Linkage to language phenotypes was established at two novel chromosomal loci, 15q23-26 and 16p12. The secondary analysis of normal and disordered quantitative variation in social and compulsive behaviors established linkage to two loci for social behaviors (at 14q and 15q) and one locus for repetitive behaviors (at 13q).
Conclusion: These data indicate shared etiology of ASD and specific language impairment at two novel loci. Additionally, nonlanguage phenotypes based on social aloofness and rigid personality traits showed compelling evidence for linkage in this study group. Further genetic mapping is warranted at these loci.