Improving diabetes outcomes by an innovative group visit model: a pilot study

J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2013 Sep;25(9):466-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2012.00796.x. Epub 2012 Dec 3.


Purpose: To develop a group visit model that improves A1C, blood pressure, lipids, depression, and satisfaction among patients with diabetes that can be used in primary care practice settings.

Data sources: Using a pre/post-test descriptive design, data were collected from 22 adult patients of a private family practice office. All patients had a diagnosis of diabetes and A1C of 7.5 or above. The participants consisted of over 70% of persons aged 50 or older who reported having diabetes for over 5 years. Eighty percent were female and 32% were African American. A1C, blood pressure, weight, lipids, depression, and satisfaction surveys were measured before and after the group visit series.

Conclusions: The mean reduction in A1C was 1.1 points (p = .009). Weight decreased by a mean of 3.01 pounds (p = .001), diastolic blood pressure improved by a mean of 5.76 mmHg (p = .002). The Beck Depression Inventory showed significant improvement (p = .045) in depression scores. The Seattle Outpatient Satisfaction Questionnaire showed improvement (p = .028).

Implications for practice: This model of care needs further testing, but preliminary data show it to be effective in improving clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes and realistic for nurse practitioner's to implement.

Keywords: Diabetes; SMARTTM board; diabetes type 2; group medical appointments; rural; shared medical appointment.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder / etiology
  • Depressive Disorder / therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / psychology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Female
  • Group Processes*
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Personal Satisfaction
  • Pilot Projects
  • Primary Health Care*
  • Risk Factors


  • Lipids