Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2014;37(3):625-33.
doi: 10.2337/dc13-0816. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD) in Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD) in Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes

Steven A Safren et al. Diabetes Care. .
Free PMC article

Erratum in

Abstract

Objective: To test cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that CBT-AD would improve adherence; depression; and, secondarily, hemoglobin A1c (A1C).

Research design and methods: Eighty-seven adults with unipolar depression and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes received enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU), including medication adherence, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), and lifestyle counseling; a provider letter documented psychiatric diagnoses. Those randomized to the intervention arm also received 9-11 sessions of CBT-AD.

Results: Immediately after acute treatment (4 months), adjusting for baseline, CBT-AD had 20.7 percentage points greater oral medication adherence on electronic pill cap (95% CI -31.14 to -10.22, P = 0.000); 30.2 percentage points greater SMBG adherence through glucometer downloads (95% CI -42.95 to -17.37, P = 0.000); 6.44 points lower depression scores on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (95% CI 2.33-10.56, P = 0.002); 0.74 points lower on the Clinical Global Impression (95% CI 0.16-1.32, P = 0.01); and 0.72 units lower A1C (95% CI 0.29-1.15, P = 0.001) relative to ETAU. Analyses of 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-up time points indicated that CBT-AD maintained 24.3 percentage points higher medication adherence (95% CI -38.2 to -10.3, P = 0.001); 16.9 percentage points greater SMBG adherence (95% CI -33.3 to -0.5, P = 0.043); and 0.63 units lower A1C (95% CI 0.06-1.2, P = 0.03) after acute treatment ended. For depression, there was some evidence of continued improvement posttreatment, but no between-group differences.

Conclusions: CBT-AD is an effective intervention for adherence, depression, and glycemic control, with enduring and clinically meaningful benefits for diabetes self-management and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes and depression.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00564070.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Participant flow diagram. PI, principal investigator.

Comment in

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 47 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Stark Casagrande S, Fradkin JE, Saydah SH, Rust KF, Cowie CC. The prevalence of meeting A1C, blood pressure, and LDL goals among people with diabetes, 1988–2010. Diabetes Care 2013;36:2271–2279 - PMC - PubMed
    1. Hoerger TJ, Segel JE, Gregg EW, Saaddine JB. Is glycemic control improving in U.S. adults? Diabetes Care 2008;31:81–86 - PubMed
    1. Donnan PT, MacDonald TM, Morris AD. Adherence to prescribed oral hypoglycaemic medication in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study. Diabet Med 2002;19:279–284 - PubMed
    1. Ho PM, Rumsfeld JS, Masoudi FA, et al. Effect of medication nonadherence on hospitalization and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1836–1841 - PubMed
    1. Ali S, Stone MA, Peters JL, Davies MJ, Khunti K. The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med 2006;23:1165–1173 - PubMed

Publication types

MeSH terms

Associated data

Feedback