Recent advances in human genomics and biotechnologies have profound impacts on medical research and clinical practice. Individual genomic information, including DNA sequences and gene expression profiles, can be used for prediction, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for many complex diseases. Personalized medicine attempts to tailor medical care to individual patients by incorporating their genomic information. In a case of pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, alteration in many genes as well as molecular profiles in blood, pancreas tissue, and pancreas juice has recently been discovered to be closely associated with tumorigenesis or prognosis of the cancer. This review aims to summarize recent advances of important genes, proteins, and microRNAs that play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and to provide implications for personalized medicine in pancreatic cancer.