Nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery vehicles may eventually offer improved tumor treatments; however, NP delivery from the bloodstream to tumors can be hindered by poor convective and/or diffusive transport. We tested whether poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) NP delivery can be improved by covalently linking them to ultrasound (US)-activated microbubbles in a "composite-agent" formulation and whether drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-loaded NPs delivered in this fashion inhibit the growth of tumors that are typically not responsive to intravenously administered 5FU. After intravenous composite-agent injection, C6 gliomas implanted on Rag-1(-/-) mice were exposed to pulsed 1 MHz US, resulting in the delivery of 16% of the initial NP dose per gram tissue. This represented a five- to 57-fold increase in NP delivery when compared to multiple control groups. 5FU-bearing NP delivery from the composite-agent formulation resulted in a 67% reduction in tumor volume at 7 days after treatment, and animal survival increased significantly when compared to intravenous soluble 5FU administration. We conclude that NP delivery from US-activated composite agents may improve tumor treatment by offering a combination of better targeting, enhanced payload delivery, and controlled local drug release.