Inflammation during HIV infection is associated with worse disease outcomes and progression. Many mechanisms have been indicted, including HIV itself, coinfections, and gut microbial translocation. Concerning microbial translocation, we hypothesized that adaptive immune responses to a specific bacterial species known to be present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue are higher among HIV-infected individuals than among HIV-uninfected controls and are associated with T cell activation and lower CD4 T cell counts. By characterizing the IgG response to Achromobacter xylosoxidans, we found that HIV-infected participants who were immunoresponsive (n = 48) had significantly lower CD4 percentages (P = 0.01), greater CD4 activation (percentages of RA(-) CD38(+)) (P = 0.03), and higher soluble CD14 (P = 0.01). HIV-positive individuals had higher anti-A. xylosoxidans IgG titers than HIV-uninfected individuals (P = 0.04). The results suggest an abnormal adaptive immune activation to gut microflora during HIV infection.