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Meta-Analysis
, 38 (8), 1110-4

The Obesity Paradox in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Versus Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data

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Meta-Analysis

The Obesity Paradox in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Versus Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data

R Padwal et al. Int J Obes (Lond).

Abstract

Background: In heart failure (HF), obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg m(-2), is paradoxically associated with higher survival rates compared with normal-weight patients (the 'obesity paradox'). We sought to determine if the obesity paradox differed by HF subtype (reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) versus preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF)).

Patients and methods: A sub-analysis of the MAGGIC meta-analysis of patient-level data from 14 HF studies was performed. Subjects were divided into five BMI groups: <22.5, 22.5-24.9 (referent), 25-29.9, 30-34.9 and ≥35 kg m(-2). Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, aetiology (ischaemic or non-ischaemic), hypertension, diabetes and baseline blood pressure, stratified by study, were used to examine the independent association between BMI and 3-year total mortality. Analyses were conducted for the overall group and within HF-REF and HF-PEF groups.

Results: BMI data were available for 23 967 subjects (mean age, 66.8 years; 32% women; 46% NYHA Class II; 50% Class III) and 5609 (23%) died by 3 years. Obese patients were younger, more likely to receive cardiovascular (CV) drug treatment, and had higher comorbidity burdens. Compared with BMI levels between 22.5 and 24.9 kg m(-2), the adjusted relative hazards for 3-year mortality in subjects with HF-REF were: hazard ratios (HR)=1.31 (95% confidence interval=1.15-1.50) for BMI <22.5, 0.85 (0.76-0.96) for BMI 25.0-29.9, 0.64 (0.55-0.74) for BMI 30.0-34.9 and 0.95 (0.78-1.15) for BMI ≥35. Corresponding adjusted HRs for those with HF-PEF were: 1.12 (95% confidence interval=0.80-1.57) for BMI <22.5, 0.74 (0.56-0.97) for BMI 25.0-29.9, 0.64 (0.46-0.88) for BMI 30.0-34.9 and 0.71 (0.49-1.05) for BMI ≥35.

Conclusions: In patients with chronic HF, the obesity paradox was present in both those with reduced and preserved ventricular systolic function. Mortality in both HF subtypes was U-shaped, with a nadir at 30.0-34.9 kg m(-2).

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