In this study, the protective effects of Brussels sprouts extract and its major constituents against oxidative stress-induced damages were investigated in rat pheochromocytoma cells and Institute of Cancer Research mice. The major constituents of Brussels sprouts (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), indole-3-carbinol, and phenethyl isothiocyanate) were selectively tested. Of these, the flavonoid compound, kaempferol exhibited the highest potency in radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay) and was most protective against oxidative stress in neuronal cell assays (measurement of intracellular oxidative stress levels and cell viability). In mice, after 4 weeks of kaempferol administration, significant protection against amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide-induced neurotoxicity was also observed, as assessed through the passive avoidance test. Taken together, the results suggest that Brussels sprouts could be protective against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, possibly due to the antioxidative capacity of its major constituent, kaempferol.