Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is a ubiquitously distributed protein belonging to the immunophilin family. CyPA has peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity, which regulates protein folding and trafficking. Although CyPA was initially believed to function primarily as an intracellular protein, recent studies have revealed that it can be secreted by cells in response to inflammatory stimuli. Current research in animal models and humans has provided compelling evidences supporting the critical function of CyPA in several human diseases. This review discusses recently available data about CyPA in cardiovascular diseases, viral infections, neurodegeneration, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, asthma, periodontitis and aging. It is believed that further elucidations of the role of CyPA will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases and will help develop novel pharmacological therapies.