Chronic endometritis due to common bacteria is prevalent in women with recurrent miscarriage as confirmed by improved pregnancy outcome after antibiotic treatment

Reprod Sci. 2014 May;21(5):640-7. doi: 10.1177/1933719113508817. Epub 2013 Oct 31.


Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as 3 or more miscarriages before 20 weeks' pregnancy. In recent years, interest has been focused on chronic endometritis (CE), a subtle inflammation thought to be associated with RM. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between CE and RM. The records of 360 women with unexplained RM were retrospectively analyzed. Data from hysteroscopy, endometrial histology, endometrial culture, and polymerase chain reaction for chlamydia, performed before and after antibiotic treatment for CE, were analyzed. The occurrence of successful pregnancies within 1 year after treatment was also evaluated. Results showed that 208 (57.8%) women with RM showed CE at hysteroscopy; 190 (91.3%), positive at hysteroscopy, were also positive at histology, and 142 (68.3%) had positive cultures. Common bacteria were found in 110 (77.5%) patients. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were found in 36 (25.3%) patients and Chlamydia in 18 patients (12.7%). In 102 (71%) women, antibiogram-based antibiotic treatment normalized hysteroscopy, histology, and cultures (group 1); while in 40 (28.2%) patients, CE was still present at hysteroscopy (group 2). In 16 of the 66 patients positive at hysteroscopy, but not at cultures, the hysteroscopy becomes normal (group 3) after a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based therapy; while in 50 women, CE was still present (group 4). One year after treatment, group 1 showed a significantly higher number of pregnancies (78.4%) compared to group 2 (17.5%; P < .001) and group 4 (15.3%; P = .005). The CE is frequent in women with RM. Antibiotic treatment seems to be associated with an improved reproductive outcome.

Keywords: antibiotic treatment; chronic endometritis; endometrial culture; hysteroscopy; repeated miscarriage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Habitual / drug therapy
  • Abortion, Habitual / epidemiology*
  • Abortion, Habitual / microbiology*
  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Chlamydia / isolation & purification
  • Chronic Disease
  • Endometritis / drug therapy
  • Endometritis / epidemiology*
  • Endometritis / microbiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mycoplasma / isolation & purification
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae / isolation & purification
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents