Genetic models for quantitative traits of triploid endosperms are proposed for the analysis of direct gene effects, cytoplasmic effects, and maternal gene effects. The maternal effect is partitioned into maternal additive and dominance components. In the full genetic model, the direct effect is partitioned into direct additive and dominance components and high-order dominance component, which are the cumulative effects of three-allele interactions. If the high-order dominance effects are of no importance, a reduced genetic model can be used. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted in this study for demonstrating unbiasedness of estimated variance and covariance components from the MINQUE (0/1) procedure, which is a minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation (MINQUE) method setting 0 for all the prior covariances and 1 for all the prior variances. Robustness of estimating variance and covariance components for the genetic models was tested by simulations. Both full and reduced genetic models are shown to be robust for estimating variance and covariance components under several situations of no specific effects. Efficiency of predicting random genetic effects for the genetic models by the MINQUE (0/1) procedure was compared with the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). A worked example is given to illustrate the use of the reduced genetic model for kernel growth characteristics in corn (Zea mays L.).