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, 6 (5), 1435-1438

Honokiol-induced Apoptosis and Autophagy in Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

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Honokiol-induced Apoptosis and Autophagy in Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

Ken-Hu Chang et al. Oncol Lett.

Abstract

Honokiol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from the Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to have anticancer activities in a variety of cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to evaluate the anticancer effect and possible molecular mechanisms of honokiol in a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell line. The anticancer activities of honokiol were investigated in the DBTRG-05MG GBM cell line. The effect of honokiol on cell growth was determined using a sulforhodamine B assay. Flow cytometry and immunoblotting were used to measure honokiol-induced apoptosis (programmed cell death type I) and autophagy (programmed cell death type II). Honokiol was observed to reduce DBTRG-05MG cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. At a dose of 50 μM, honokiol markedly decreased the expression of Rb protein and led to the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and Bcl-xL to promote apoptosis in the cancer cells. In addition, markers of autophagy, including Beclin-1 and LC3-II, were also significantly increased. In addition to apoptosis, honokiol was also able to induce autophagy in the DBTRG-05MG cells. The mechanisms that are responsible for the correlation between honokiol-induced apoptosis and autophagy require further investigation. Such efforts may provide a potential strategy for improving the clinical outcome of GBM treatment.

Keywords: apoptosis; autophagy; glioblastoma multiforme; honokiol.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Effect of honokiol on DBTRG-05MG cell viability. The cells were incubated with various concentrations of honokiol for 72 h. The cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Honokiol-induced apoptosis in DBTRG-05MG cells. Following treatment with various concentrations of honokiol (0, 12.5, 25 and 50 μM) for 72 h, the cells were examined for apoptosis using propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. The percentages of the apoptotic populations are shown in the histograms.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effects of honokiol on Rb protein. The DBTRG-05MG cells were treated with honokiol at the indicated concentrations for 72 h and a western blot analysis was performed with antibodies that were specific for phospho- and total Rb protein. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as internal control.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effects of honokiol-induced cleavage in apoptosis-related proteins. The DBTRG-05MG cells were treated with honokiol at the indicated concentrations for 72 h and a western blot analysis was performed with antibodies that were specific for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and Bcl-x (S/L). GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Honokiol-induced autophagy in DBTRG-05MG cells. The cells were treated with honokiol at the indicated concentrations for 72 h and a western blot analysis was performed with antibodies that were specific for Beclin-1 and LC3. GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

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