Pretreatment anterior segment imaging during acute primary angle closure: insights into angle closure mechanisms in the acute phase

Ophthalmology. 2014 Jan;121(1):119-125. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.08.004. Epub 2013 Oct 31.


Objective: To describe anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) parameters during acute primary angle closure (APAC) before therapeutic interventions and comparative analyses of biometric parameters of APAC eyes with fellow eyes.

Design: Prospective, comparative case series.

Participants: Thirty-one consecutive patients with APAC.

Methods: All patients underwent ASOCT imaging of both eyes during the attack, before therapeutic interventions were administered. Custom software was used to measure anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber area (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), iris curvature (I-Curv), iris area (I-Area), lens vault (LV), and angle opening distance (AOD750), trabecular iris space area (TISA750), and iris thickness (IT750) at 750 μm from the scleral spur. Multivariate logistic regression modeling using forward selection was used to determine the most important biometric variables associated with APAC compared with the fellow eye during the attack.

Main outcome measures: Anterior segment biometric parameters associated with APAC.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.9±7.5 years, and 11 patients (35.5%) were male. The mean intraocular pressure was 3.8±9.2 mmHg in the APAC eye and 4.2±4.3 mmHg in the fellow eye before treatment (P <0.001). After adjustment for pupil diameter, APAC eyes had smaller ACD, ACA, ACV, I-Curv (all P <0.001), AOD750 (P = 0.037), TISA750 (P = 0.043), I-Area (P = 0.027), and IT750 (P = 0.002) and larger LV (P = 0.041) than fellow eyes. An optimal model consisting of 3 variables (pupil diameter, ACD, and I-Curv) explained 36.7% of the variance in APAC occurrence, with ACD accounting for 18.1% and I-Curv accounting for 14.1% of this variance.

Conclusions: Shallower ACD and smaller I-Curv were the 2 main anterior segment biometric parameters associated with APAC during the attack. These findings present new insights into the anterior segment biometric parameters of APAC and fellow eyes before therapeutic interventions. Anatomic changes in the anterior segment explained only about one third of the variance in APAC occurrence, and the role of nonanatomic factors require further investigation.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Anterior Eye Segment / pathology*
  • Biometry
  • Female
  • Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / diagnosis*
  • Gonioscopy
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence*
  • Tonometry, Ocular