The marine genus Phaeobacter currently comprises six species, some of which were intensively studied mainly due to their ability to produce secondary metabolites. The type strain of the type species, Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS107(T), has been deposited at several public culture collections worldwide. Based on differences in plasmid profiles, we detected that the alleged P. gallaeciensis type strains deposited at the Collection Institute Pasteur (CIP; Paris, France) as CIP 105210 and at the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ; Braunschweig, Germany) as DSM 17395 are not identical. To determine the identity of these strains, we conducted DNA-DNA hybridization, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses, as well as physiological experiments. Based on the detailed 16S rRNA gene reanalysis we showed that strain CIP 105210 most likely corresponds to the original P. gallaeciensis type strain BS107(T). In contrast, the Phaeobacter strain DSM 17395 exhibits a much closer affiliation to Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 16374(T) ( = T5(T)) and should thus be allocated to this species. The detection of the dissimilarity of strains CIP 105210(T) and DSM 17395 will influence future comparative studies within the genus Phaeobacter.