A New Era in Brown Adipose Tissue Biology: Molecular Control of Brown Fat Development and Energy Homeostasis

Annu Rev Physiol. 2014;76:225-49. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-021113-170252. Epub 2013 Nov 4.

Abstract

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat as a defense against cold and excessive feeding. Interest in the field of BAT biology has exploded in the past few years because of the therapeutic potential of BAT to counteract obesity and obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance. Much progress has been made, particularly in the areas of BAT physiology in adult humans, developmental lineages of brown adipose cell fate, and hormonal control of BAT thermogenesis. As we enter into a new era of brown fat biology, the next challenge will be to develop strategies for activating BAT thermogenesis in adult humans to increase whole-body energy expenditure. This article reviews the recent major advances in this field and discusses emerging questions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adipocytes / physiology
  • Adipose Tissue, Brown / diagnostic imaging
  • Adipose Tissue, Brown / metabolism
  • Adipose Tissue, Brown / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Cell Lineage / physiology
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology*
  • Homeostasis / physiology
  • Humans
  • Ion Channels / metabolism
  • Mitochondrial Proteins / metabolism
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Thermogenesis / physiology
  • Uncoupling Protein 1

Substances

  • Ion Channels
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • Uncoupling Protein 1