Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S

Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Jan:63:136-42. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.042. Epub 2013 Nov 1.


Caffeine is one of the most researched food components, with the vast majority of dietary contributions coming from beverage consumption; however, there is little population-level data on caffeine intakes in the U.S. This study estimated the caffeine intakes of the U.S. population using a comprehensive beverage survey, the Kantar Worldpanel Beverage Consumption Panel. A nationally representative sample of 37,602 consumers (aged ≥ 2 years) of caffeinated beverages completed 7-day diaries which facilitated the development of a detailed database of caffeine values to assess intakes. Results showed that 85% of the U.S. population consumes at least one caffeinated beverage per day. The mean (±SE) daily caffeine intake from all beverages was 165±1 mg for all ages combined. Caffeine intake was highest in consumers aged 50-64 years (226±2 mg/day). The 90th percentile intake was 380 mg/day for all ages combined. Coffee was the primary contributor to caffeine intakes in all age groups. Carbonated soft drinks and tea provided a greater percentage of caffeine in the younger (<18 years) age groups. The percentage of energy drink consumers across all age groups was low (≤10%). These data provide a current perspective on caffeinated beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes in the U.S. population.

Keywords: Beverages; CSD; CSFII; Caffeine; Consumption; Continuing Survey of Food Intakes in Individuals; FDA; Food and Drug Administration; Intake; KWP; Kantar Worldpanel; NDSR; NHANES; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; Nutrition Data System for Research; SIP; Share of Intake Panel; Survey; U.S. population; US Department of Agriculture; USDA; carbonated soft drink.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Beverages*
  • Caffeine / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • United States


  • Caffeine