Vitamin D has an important role to play in skeletal and extraskeletal health. Inspite of being a sun rich country, India has widespread vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to serious consequences like hypocalcemic seizures and increased risk of respiratory tract infections in neonates and infants. International expert groups advocate universal supplementation for non-formula fed infants, pregnant and lactating women and those at risk of deficiency. A body of literature on vitamin D status in India is being generated, which may guide clinical practice in our country. Treatment of deficiency must be undertaken with minimally effective doses to avoid the risk of toxicity. Sensible sunshine exposure should be encouraged to facilitate vitamin D production from natural sources.