Unilateral pollen-pistil incompatibility within the Brassicaceae has been re-examined in a series of interspecific and intergeneric crosses using 13 self-compatible (SC, Sc) species and 12 self-incompatible (SI) species from ten tribes. SC x SC crosses were usually compatible, SI x SC crosses showed unilateral incompatibility, while SI x SI crosses were often incompatible or unilaterally incompatible. Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is shown to be overcome by bud pollination or treating stigmas with cycloheximide - features in common with self-incompatibility. Treating stigmas with pronase prevents pollen tubes from penetrating the stigma in normally compatible intra-and interspecific pollinations. The results presented show that the presence of an incompatibility system is important in predicting the outcome of interspecific and intergeneric crosses and, combined with the physiological similarities between UI and SI, would suggest an involvement of the S-locus in UI.