The proportion of non-tandem duplicated loci detected by DNA hybridization and the segregation of RFLPs using 90 independent randomly isolated cDNA probes was estimated by segregation analysis to be 17%. The 14 cDNA probes showing duplicate loci in progeny derived from a cross between Arabidopsis-thaliana ecotypes 'Columbia x Landsberg erecta' detected an average of 3.6 loci per probe (ranging from 2 to 6). The 50 loci detected with these 14 probes were arranged on a genetic map of 587 cM and assigned to the five A. Thaliana chromosomes. An additional duplicated locus was detected in progeny from a cross between 'Landsberg erecta x Niederzenz'. The majority of duplicated loci were on different chromosomes, and when linkage between duplicate locus pairs was detected, these loci were always separated by at least 15 cM. When partial nucleotide sequence data were compared with GENBANK databases, the identities of 2 cDNA clones which recognized duplicate unlinked sequences in the A. Thaliana genome were determined to encode a chlorophyll a/b-binding protein and a beta-tubulin. Of the 8 loci carrying beta-tubulin genes 6 were placed on the genetic map. These results imply that gene duplication has been an important factor in the evolution of the Arabidopsis genome.