Prevention of exercise-related injuries and adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes

Postgrad Med J. 2013 Dec;89(1058):715-21. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2013-132222. Epub 2013 Nov 5.


Physical activity is widely recommended as an essential non-pharmacological therapeutic strategy to the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with the natural progression of the disease and typical age and anthropometric profile of individuals with type 2 diabetes may expose these patients to an increased risk of injury and acute adverse events during exercise. These injuries and adverse events can lead to fear of new injury and consequent physical inactivity. Preventative measures are essential to reduce risk, increase safety and avoid the occurrence of exercise-related injuries in people with type 2 diabetes. This population can exercise safely if certain precautions are taken and if exercise is adapted to complications and contraindications of each individual. Conditions such as diabetic foot, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular risk factors, musculoskeletal disorders, hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, dehydration and interactions between medication and exercise should be taken into consideration when prescribing exercise.

Keywords: Public Health; Sports Medicine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Athletic Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / etiology
  • Coronary Artery Disease / prevention & control*
  • Diabetes Complications / etiology
  • Diabetes Complications / prevention & control*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Exercise Therapy* / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / prevention & control*
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Risk Factors