ppdb (http://ppdb.agr.gifu-u.ac.jp) is a plant promoter database that provides information on transcription start sites (TSSs), core promoter structure (TATA boxes, Initiators, Y Patches, GA and CA elements) and regulatory element groups (REGs) as putative and comprehensive transcriptional regulatory elements. Since the last report in this journal, the database has been updated in three areas to version 3.0. First, new genomes have been included in the database, and now ppdb provides information on Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, Physcomitrella patens and poplar. Second, new TSS tag data (34 million) from A. thaliana, determined by a high throughput sequencer, has been added to give a ∼200-fold increase in TSS data compared with version 1.0. This results in a much higher coverage of ∼27,000 A. thaliana genes and finer positioning of promoters even for genes with low expression levels. Third, microarray data-based predictions have been appended as REG annotations which inform their putative physiological roles.