Cytogenetic examination of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to cotyledon- and root-explants or by direct gene transfer into protoplasts revealed a high percentage of tetraploid or aneuploid transformants. Depending on the transformation procedure used, 13% (root explant transformation), 33% (cotyledon explant transformation), or 38% (direct gene transfer) of the transformants showed aberrant ploidy levels. A good correlation between the ploidy level of a plant and the size of its pollen grains was observed. This allows quick and simple testing of the ploidy level of transgenic Arabidopsis plants.