"Selective genotyping" is the term used when the determination of linkage between marker loci and quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting some particular trait is carried out by genotyping only individuals from the high and low phenotypic tails of the entire sample population. Selective genotyping can markedly decrease the number of individuals genotyped for a given power at the expense of an increase in the number of individuals phenotyped. The optimum proportion of individuals genotyped from the point of view of minimizing costs for a given experimental power depends strongly on the cost of completely genotyping an individual for all of the markers included in the experiment (including the costs of obtaining a DNA sample) relative to the cost of rearing and trait evaluation of an individual. However, in single trait studies, it will almost never be useful to genotype more than the upper and lower 25% of a population. It is shown that the observed difference in quantitative trait values associated with alternative marker genotypes in the selected population can be much greater than the actual gene effect at the quantitative trait locus when the entire population is considered. An expression and a figure is provided for converting observed differences under selective genotyping to actual gene effects.