Room temperature ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid phase microextraction for the separation/preconcentration of trace Cd(2+) as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complex from environmental and biological samples and determined by FAAS

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013 Dec;156(1-3):49-55. doi: 10.1007/s12011-013-9853-y. Epub 2013 Nov 8.


The current work develops a new green methodology for the separation/preconcentration of cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) using room temperature ionic liquid-dispersive liquid phase microextraction (RTIL-DLME) prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with microsample introduction system. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) are considered "Green Solvents" for their thermally stable and non-volatile properties, here 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4mim][PF6] was used as an extractant. The preconcentration of Cd(2+) in different waters and acid digested scalp hair samples were complexed with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol and extracted into the fine drops of RTILs. Some significant factors influencing the extraction efficiency of Cd(2+) and its subsequent determination, including pH, amount of ligand, volume of RTIL, dispersant solvent, sample volume, temperature, and incubation time were investigated in detail. The limit of detection and the enhancement factor under the optimal conditions were 0.05 μg/L and 50, respectively. The relative standard deviation of 100 μg/L Cd(2+) was 4.3 %. The validity of the proposed method was checked by determining Cd(2+) in certified reference material (TM-25.3 fortified water). The sufficient recovery (>98 %) of Cd(2+) with the certified value. The mean concentrations of Cd in lake water 13.2, waste water 15.7 and hair sample 16.8 μg/L, respectively and the developed method was applied satisfactorily to the preconcentration and determination of Cd(2+) in real samples.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cadmium* / analysis
  • Cadmium* / metabolism
  • Fresh Water / analysis*
  • Hair / metabolism*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Humans
  • Ionic Liquids / analysis
  • Male
  • Naphthalenes* / analysis
  • Naphthalenes* / metabolism
  • Pyridines* / analysis
  • Pyridines* / metabolism
  • Scalp / metabolism*
  • Specimen Handling*


  • Ionic Liquids
  • Naphthalenes
  • Pyridines
  • naphthalene-(1,2'-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol
  • Cadmium