Aims: To describe the development of weight in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Germany.
Methods: We analyzed the body mass index (BMI) of the most recent treatment year of each patient with diabetes in the Pediatric Quality Initiative (DPV) database. BMI SD score (SDS) was calculated based on pooled historical German normative data (AGA) and based on healthy children from the CrescNet database. Thus, 25,762 children and adolescents with diabetes were compared with more than 75,000 healthy controls.
Results: BMI-SDS was 0.49±0.88 and 0.26±0.79 when children and adolescents, respectively, with diabetes were compared with AGA reference or with CrescNet controls from the same year. In both analyses, female patients (0.57±0.89 and 0.30±0.79) had significantly higher BMI-SDS than male patients (0.41±0.86 and 0.22±0.78; p<0.0001). Analysis of different age groups showed highest BMI-SDS in patients below 6 years (0.61 and 0.56, respectively). After adjustment for metabolic control, center, and insulin treatment, BMI-SDS was significantly influenced by diabetes duration, age, and female gender.
Conclusions: BMI of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes is higher compared with healthy children measured in the same year. Especially, very young children and adolescent girls are at risk for overweight independent of annual trends.