In vitro, in vivo animal, and human clinical data show a broad field of application for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). There is overwhelming evidence of the usefulness of MSCs in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and immune therapy. At present, there are a significant number of clinical trials exploring the use of MSCs for the treatment of various diseases, including myocardial infarction and stroke, in which oxygen suppression causes widespread cell death, and others with clear involvement of the immune system, such as graft-versus-host disease, Crohn's disease, and diabetes. With no less impact, MSCs have been used as cell therapy to treat defects in bone and cartilage and to help in wound healing, or in combination with biomaterials in tissue engineering development. Among the MSCs, allogeneic MSCs have been associated with a regenerative capacity due to their unique immune modulatory properties. Their immunosuppressive capability without evidence of immunosuppressive toxicity at a global level define their application in the treatment of diseases with a pathogenesis involving uncontrolled activity of the immune system. Until now, the limitation in the number of totally characterized autologous MSCs available represents a major obstacle to their use for adult stem cell therapy. The use of premanufactured allogeneic MSCs from controlled donors under optimal conditions and their application in highly standardized clinical trials would lead to a better understanding of their real applications and reduce the time to clinical translation.
Keywords: allogeneic; immunomodulation; mesenchymal stem cells; regeneration; tissue engineering.