Functional development in clinical high risk youth: prediction of schizophrenia versus other psychotic disorders

Psychiatry Res. 2014 Jan 30;215(1):52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.10.006. Epub 2013 Oct 18.


This study evaluates premorbid social and academic functioning in clinical high-risk individuals as predictors of transition to schizophrenia versus another psychotic disorder. Participants were 54 individuals enrolled in phase one of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study who over two and a half years of follow-up met criteria for schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder (n=28) or another psychotic disorder (n=26). Social and academic functioning in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence was assessed at baseline using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Social maladjustment in late adolescence predicted significantly higher odds of transition to schizophrenia versus another psychotic disorder independent of childhood and early adolescent adjustment (OR=4.02) and conveyed unique risk over academic maladjustment (OR=5.64). Premorbid academic maladjustment was not associated with psychotic disorder diagnosis. Results support diagnostic specificity of premorbid social dysfunction to schizophrenia in clinical high-risk youth and underscore an important role for social maladjustment in the developmental pathology of schizophrenia and its prediction.

Keywords: Adolescence; Diagnosis; Premorbid; Prodrome; Prospective; Psychosis; Social adjustment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adolescent
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Psychotic Disorders / psychology
  • Risk Factors
  • Schizophrenia / diagnosis*
  • Schizophrenic Psychology
  • Social Adjustment*
  • Young Adult