Chromosome-centric human proteome project (C-HPP) aims at differentiating chromosome-based and tissue-specific protein compositions in terms of protein expression, quantification, and modification. We previously found that the analysis of translating mRNA (mRNA attached to ribosome-nascent chain complex, RNC-mRNA) can explain over 94% of mRNA-protein abundance. Therefore, we propose here to use full-length RNC-mRNA information to illustrate protein expression both qualitatively and quantitatively. We performed RNA-seq on RNC-mRNA (RNC-seq) and detected 12,758 and 14,113 translating genes in human normal bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and human colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells, respectively. We found that most of these genes were mapped with >80% of coding sequence coverage. In Caco-2 cells, we provided translating evidence on 4180 significant single-nucleotide variations. While using RNC-mRNA data as a standard for proteomic data integration, both translating and protein evidence of 7876 genes can be acquired from four interlaboratory data sets with different MS platforms. In addition, we detected 1397 noncoding mRNAs that were attached to ribosomes, suggesting a potential source of new protein explorations. By comparing the two cell lines, a total of 677 differentially translated genes were found to be nonevenly distributed across chromosomes. In addition, 2105 genes in Caco-2 and 750 genes in HBE cells are expressed in a cell-specific manner. These genes are significantly and specifically clustered on multiple chromosomes, such as chromosome 19. We conclude that HPP/C-HPP investigations can be considerably improved by integrating RNC-mRNA analysis with MS, bioinformatics, and antibody-based verifications.