Rationale: IL-17 signaling has been implicated in development and persistence of asthma. Cytokine-targeted strategies blocking IL-17 receptor signaling may be beneficial in asthma treatment.
Objectives: To determine efficacy and safety of brodalumab, a human anti-IL-17 receptor A monoclonal antibody, in subjects with inadequately controlled moderate to severe asthma taking regular inhaled corticosteroids.
Methods: Three hundred two subjects were randomized to brodalumab (140, 210, or 280 mg) or placebo. Primary endpoint was change in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score from baseline to Week 12. Secondary endpoints included FEV1, symptom scores, and symptom-free days. Prespecified subgroup analyses were conducted to identify potential responsive subpopulations. Analyses included randomized subjects receiving one or more doses of investigational product using last-observation-carried-forward imputation.
Measurements and main results: Demographics and baseline characteristics were generally balanced among groups (n = 302; n = 226 brodalumab). For the overall study population, no treatment differences were observed. Nine prespecified subgroups were examined without corrections for multiple testing. In only the high-reversibility subgroup (post-bronchodilator FEV1 improvement ≥ 20%; n = 112) was an ACQ change with nominal significance noted; ACQ responses were nominally significant in the 210-mg group (estimated treatment difference, 0.53) but not significant in the higher 280-mg group (estimated treatment difference, 0.38). Adverse events, generally balanced among groups, were most commonly asthma, upper respiratory tract infection, and injection site reaction.
Conclusions: Inhibition of IL-17 receptor A did not produce a treatment effect in subjects with asthma. The results of the high-reversibility subgroup analysis are of uncertain significance, requiring further study of brodalumab in this asthma subpopulation. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01199289).